secm 470 150x150

The Scanning Droplet System uses a Scanning Droplet Cell (SDC) that allows a spatially resolved, in situ investigation by all standard electrochemical techniques.

SDS is a technique which confines a liquid in contact with a sample surface in order to measure electrochemical and corrosion reactions over a limited region where the droplet is actually in contact with the sample. This offers the unique ability to spatially resolve electrochemical activity and to confine it exclusively to a quantifiable area of the sample.

The scanning droplet technique allows the positioning of a small drop of electrolyte from a 100 µm capillary onto the sample surface. The wetted surface area under investigation acts as the working electrode and the capillary contains the counter and reference electrodes which are electrically connected to the surface through the drop.

M470 is available with a choice of potentiostat/galvanostat/FRAs: in place of the 3300, which is built-in the M470, the SP-300 can now be used with the M470.

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  • Compliance voltage: ±12 V
  • Applied potential: ±10 V FSR
  • Resolution: 32-bit (4.7 nV)
  • Measured potential: ±10 V FSR
  • Resolution: 24-bit (1.2 μV)
  • Current ranges: 10-decades 1 nA to 1 A
  • Maximum current: 500 mA
  • Current resolution: 23.8 fA
  • Accuracy: <0.5%
  • Floating capability Standard
  • Cell connections 2, 3 or 4
  • Maximum ADC sample rate: 4 MHz
  • Maximum ADC resolution: 24-bit
  • Minimum pulse duration: 100 μs
  • Scan rate: 1 μV/s to 200 V/s


  • Impedance: 10¹³ Ω II 7 pF typical
  • Bias current: 1 pA typical
  • Bandwidth: 1 MHz

EIS Capability

  • Frequency range: 1 µHz to 1 MHz
  • Analyser accuracy: 0.1%, 0.1°
  • Frequency resolution: 66 nHz
  • Mode Single sine, Multisine, FFT analysis

SDS Head

  • Reference electrode: Ag/AgCl within sensor head
  • Counter electrode: Pt wire inside capillary
  • Construction material: MACOR® Glass Ceramic
  • Aperture diameter: 100 µm / 0.00785 mm2
  • Hole aspect ratio (HAR) 10
  • Resolution: 200 µm depending on solution/surface

Pump system

  • Type: Peristaltic
  • Channels: 4-channels

Positioning system specifications

Stepper Motors

  • Scan Range (x,y,z): 110 mm x 110 mm x 110 mm
  • Minimal step size on all axes: 20 nm
  • Closed loop positioning linear zero hysteresis encoder with direct real-time readout of displacement in x, y and z
  • Linear position encoder resolution: 20 nm.
  • Max. scan speed: 10 mm/s
  • Measurement resolution: 32-bit decoder @ up to 40 MHz

Piezoelectric element (for z axis only)

  • Vibration range 20 nm – 2 µm peak to peak with 1 nm increments
  • Min. vibration resolution: 0.12 nm calculated (16-bit DAC on 4 µm)
  • Piezo crystal extension: 100 µm
  • Positioning resolution: 0.09 nm calculated (20-bit DAC on 100 µm)

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